英文句子裡的“he / she＂、“his / her＂、“himself / herself＂、“those＂、“which＂或“both＂等等，通常指的就是前、後句子出現過的人、事、物。因此，第七式「必也正名」，就要帶領大家了解在英文的閱聽過程裡，如何找到所指的真正對象、確定代名詞與所指涉的人事物之間的關聯。此功夫不但是常用的閱讀技巧，更是重要的考試策略。能夠鍛鍊起來，不僅在平日閱讀時可更了解文章前後脈絡關聯，還能夠一舉在大考、多益的閱讀測驗、聽力測驗作答順利。因此詩綺老師今天要就這第七式「必也正名」，介紹三大心法如下。
- We did not hire additional help because Mr. Danforth has assured us that he can complete the project by ____.
(A) him (B) himself (C) his (D) he
- The Yunof brand of teas, ____ entered the market in Norway only three years ago, is already among the top five best-selling brands. (A) when (B) who (C) where (D) which
答案：(D)。這題就是以關係代名詞“which＂修飾先行詞“The Yunof brand of teas＂，補充說明“Yunof＂是在3年前甫進入挪威市場的茶葉品牌。
144-146.The City Council of Montville would like to thank all those who participated in the fifteenth annual Montville Festival events on September 3-4 for making them a resounding success. Special thanks are __144（答案：due）__ to the sponsors of the events, Montville Electronics and Jeffers Furniture. __145__ donated the prizes handed out on the first evening to children participating in the History of Montville Quiz.（文未完）
- (A) What (B) Some (C) Theirs (D) They
答案：(D)。在第145題中， 我們可以從基本文法面來判斷。空格是句首的第一個字，後面接動詞“donated＂，可以判斷本句缺乏一個主詞來指稱上一句提到的兩個贊助商“Montville Electronics and Jeffers Furniture＂。因此我們選擇可以指稱複數名詞的選項“They＂。
- In line…, the word“XXXX＂ refers to….
- The word“XXXX＂in the passage refers to….
Most people probably don’t feel sympathy for these endangered creatures, but they do need protecting. The slow and clumsy wetas have been around on the island since the times of the dinosaurs, and have evolved and survived in an environment. Where they had no enemies until rats came to the island with European immigrants. Since rats love to hunt and eat wetas, the rat population on the island has grown into a real problem for many of the native species that are unaccustomed to its presences, and poses a serious threat to the native weta population.
Q44：Which of the following is the most appropriate interpretation of “its” in the last paragraph?
(A) The rat’s. (B) The weta’s.
(C) The island’s. (D) The dinosaur’s.
原文句子“Since rats love to hunt and eat wetas, the rat population on the island has grown into a real problem for many of the native species that are unaccustomed to its presences＂（由於老鼠喜愛獵食沙螽，對於許多原生物種而言，島上鼠群的出現成了真正的問題…），由此可知“its＂應該代替單數名詞“the rat population＂。因此，若將答案套回原句，文意就是“its presence＂等於“the rat’s population’s presence＂，因此答案選(A)。
（第一段略）In the late nineteenth century, the Swiss army issued its soldiers a gun that required a special screwdriver to dismantle and clean it. At the same time, canned food was becoming common in the army. Swiss generals decided to issue each soldier a standard knife that that the army loved to serve both as a screwdriver and a can opener.
It was a life saver for Swiss knife makers, who were struggling to compete with cheaper German imports. In 1884, Carl Elsener, head of the Swiss knife manufacturer Victorinox, seized that opportunity with both hands with one big blade, a can opener, and a screwdriver.
- What does “It” in the third paragraph refer to?
(A) The Swiss army needed a knife for every soldier.
(B) Every good Swiss citizen had a knife in his pocket.
(C) Swiss knives were competing with imported knives.
(D) Canned food was becoming popular in the Swiss army.
答案：(A)。根據本文第二段最後一句“Swiss generals decided to issue each soldier a standard knife that that the army loved to serve both as a screwdriver and a can opener.＂（於是瑞士的將領們決定發給每位士兵一把標準的刀子，可以同時當成螺絲起子和開罐器。）
而第三段第一句則提到“It was a life saver for Swiss knife makers, who were struggling to compete with cheaper German imports.＂（這項決定對於當時正奮力和價格較便宜的德國進口刀競爭的瑞士刀製造商而言，就像是救命恩人一樣。）
得知“It＂指的是「每位士兵都有一把刀」的決定，故(A) 為正確答案。此處“It＂所指的就是前面所講的“decided to issue each soldier a standard knife＂。作者利用“It＂一字來取代，不但精簡化，而且避免用字重複。
Today the car seems to make periodic leaps in progress. A variety of driver assistance technologies are appearing on new cars. A developing technology called Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication, or V2V, is being tested by automotive manufacturers as a way to help reduce the number of accidents. V2V works by using wireless signals to send information back and forth between cars about their location, speed and direction, so that they keep safe distances from each other. Another new technology being tested is Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication, or V2I. V2I would allow vehicles to communicate with road signs or traffic signals and provide information to the vehicle about safety issues. V2I could also request traffic information from a traffic management system and access the best possible routes. Both V2V and V2I have the potential to reduce around 80 percent of vehicle crashes on the road.
- What does “infrastructure” in Vehicle-to-Infrastructure refer to?
(A) Traffic facilities and information systems.
(B) The basic structure roads and bridges.
(C) Knowledge and regulations about safe driving.
(D) The traffic department of the government.
答案：(A)。此處的“infrastructure＂可以從後面的“V2I would allow vehicles to communicate with road signs or traffic signals and provide information to the vehicle about safety issues.＂推斷“infrastructure＂在此指路標與交通號誌等資訊系統。因此答案為(A)。